Glossary of Terms

The Principles of Material Handling

Planning: Planning is of the essence to eliminate any confusions, bottlenecks, or injuries when materials are being handled.

Work: Mistakes and accidents increase on-site when the amount of work in material handling is really high. When you plan effectively, the amount of work to be done also reduces because you can easily allocate tasks as necessary.

Standardization: Industrial material handling systems allow us to standardize the way in which materials are handled, ensuring there is lesser scope for goods getting lost or spoiled. Additionally, standardized handling reduces wastage of time and resources, thereby increasing company productivity.

Unit Load: A “unit load” refers to a specific load of goods, which can be moved as a single unit.

Ergonomics: Ergonomics is the process of creating a material handling system that offers a comfortable and safe work environment for employees, preventing injuries, and disabilities. Material handling systems can eliminate certain tasks or make them easier, making the overall process more ergonomic.

System Integration: System integration refers to bringing together various activities in the supply chain into one single system to improve productivity. A material handling system will merge a variety of material handling activities, so they occur seamlessly.

Automation: By automating certain tasks, you’ll be able to dispatch your employees to those activities where their skills will add value. Automation also improves the quality of work done because it is devoid of human fatigue and error.

Space Utilization: The ability to reduce clutter and bottlenecks by optimizing space via material handling systems.

Sustainability: Environmentally conscious decisions for companies to reduce ecological impact. Can offer solutions for material reuse, recycling and effective disposal.

Life Cycle Cost: Economic investment analysis for the life cycle of material handling equipment and solutions integrated.


ADC: (Automatic Data Collection) The direct entry of captured data of paper documents input in a digital file in a computer system via software tools.

AGV: (Automated Guided Vehicle) Machines of various sizes guided by wires, light, or embedded track in a facility that assist in the movement and preparation of goods for packing and shipping.

AMR: (Autonomous Mobile Robots) Independent robot that navigates throughout the warehouse to move or transport materials.

ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange): A coding system that represents text characters and control codes a computer produces.

AS/RS: (Automated Storage/Retrieval System) Computer-controlled systems that automatically place and retrieve loads from set storage locations in a facility with precision, accuracy and speed. They are designed for automated storage and retrieval of parts and items in manufacturing, distribution, retail, wholesale and institutions.

ATM: (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) A high-speed broadband transmission technology that uses fixed length cells to organize information.

AUI: (Attachment Unit Interface) An interface that connects an external Ethernet transceiver.

Algorithm: Steps of instructions with a number of steps, to complete a problem or task.

Analog Control: A data-transfer method that uses variable physical quantities for transmitting voice and data signals over telephone lines. Analog transmission speed is limited by the bandwidth of the human voice.

Artificial Intelligence (AI): The ability of a machine system such as the ASAP software to perceive anticipated or unanticipated new occurrences, decide the next steps to solve the problem, and execute game plan.

Aspect Ratio: For bar code symbols, it is the ratio of bar height to width.

Assembly Language: Type of programming language that communicates directly with a computer’s system.

Autodiscrimination: A feature canners that allow the device to differentiate a set of symbols, process it, and decodes.

ASAP Workstations: Computer workstations that uses ASAP Software by the worker to request orders, store and pick items, and supervise and manage orders.

Automated Order Picking Machines: Specialized automated order picking machines that are used in high volume, small parts order picking operations. Automated order picking machines are optimized for high-speed order picking of small, boxed items which are consistent in terms of the size and weight of the package.

Automatic Lubricator: A system that dispenses lubricant to parts such as chains, cylinders and wheels.

Automatic Sortation: Device software system that sorts packages on a conveyor line based on product type.

Automation: (1) A system of production, movement and inspection of parts and materials that are automatically controlled or performed by self-operating machinery, electronic devices, or software. (2) Automatically controlled operations of mechanical or electronic devices that minimize and/or replace human labor.

Average Peak Staffing: The average number of workers needed to have for a warehouse facility based on the average workload and peak season of operations.


BPS: (Bits per second) Measure of data speed that shows average rate of data transfer.

Backbone: Part of computer network that interconnects different networks and data.

Ball Transfer: A group of balls on a conveyor in which moves packages in any direction.

Bar: Dark line amongst bar code used to represent digits.

Bar Code: A machine-readable identification technology that represents numbers and characters.

Bar Code Character: A group of numbers and characters representing particular item/package.

Bar Code Density: Refers to how many characters per inch.

Bar Code Label: A label that carries a bar code.

Bar Height or Bar Length: The upright bar dimension.

Bar Width: The thickness of a bar measured from the width.

Baseband LAN: A LAN that uses a single carrier where one signal is transmitted at a time.

Batch Picking: Order method in which pickers collect items for multiple orders. Used to maximize group order efficiency.

Baud: Unit to measure the speed of signaling and/or data transfer. Baud = # of pulses or bits per second.

Bay: An area of space in a warehouse. There are different types of bays such as a racking bay and speed bay.

Belt Conveyor: Designed to transport items such as materials, goods and even people. It’s one of the most widely used and versatile system to transfer items. The belt material consists of rubber or plastic combined with fabric material. Belt conveyors can operate on level surfaces, or on an incline, or decline.

Benchmark: A point of reference by which something can be measured. For example: an annual review, hitting a KPI, etc.

Bill of Lading: A document issued by a carrier in notice of received cargo/shipment in shipping and logistics.

Binaries: Files of compiled computer code that allow programs to be installed.

Binary: Composition of two pieces or parts.

Bit: The smallest unit of data a computer can process and store.

Black Box Testing: Method of software testing that examines effectiveness of an application.

Bridge: A networking device that connects two LANs and forwards or filters data packets between them.

Broadband: A data transmission with wide bandwidth which transports multiple signals.

Broadband Network: A network that has high-speed internet access and data transmission.

Brouter: Also known as bridge router, it is a network device that functions as both bridge and router.

Bulk Storage: Typically, in a warehouse setting, bulk storage are items such as equipment and supplies stored in large quantities.

Bus: A digital pathway that allows the transfer of data to each other.

Byte: Considered a unit of memory size. A data unit of usually eight bits.


CAD: (Computer-Aided Design) A computer-based software that aids engineers and designers in the design process. Can create two-dimensional (2-D) or three-dimensional (3-D) designs.

CAM: (Computer-Aided Manufacturing) Uses software and computer systems to plan, manage, and control the operations of a manufacturing process.

CCD Scanner: (Charged Coupled Device). Light sensitive circuit that captures images and memory by converting light to electronic impulses.

CRT: (Cathode Ray Tube) Terminal Consists of a small visual display and a keyboard similar to that of a typewriter. With a CRT Terminal, an operator can access a computer to enter data or receive information and/or instructions.

Cantilever Rack: Heavy-duty rack that allows storage for items that cannot be placed in pallets. Commonly used for heavy items such as lumber and pipes.

Capacity: (1) The maximum load in pounds, or the maximum load in pounds that a truck can safely transport and/or stack to a specified height. (2) For conveyors, capacity is the max amount of product weight a conveyor can transport.

Capacity Rated: Capacity of weight determined by the vendor that the material handling equipment can safely handle and operate.

Carousel: Carousel is an automated, high-density storage rack system. They carry storage baskets suspended at the top and bottom by a powered track system. Baskets are moved around the carousel unit under operator or computer control. Order picking then takes place from the basket that is stopped at an operator station.

Carousel Dwell Time: Time an operator has to wait for the carousel to position.

Carrier: A device that’s attached or hung from trolleys to support a load.

Catwalk: An elevated platform or walkway constructed to permit access to equipment, controls or other devices not frequently used. The catwalk maximizes square footage of flooring where storage is limited.

Center of Gravity: The point which the force of gravity acts on an object or system.

Change of Elevation: The distance between the upper horizontal track of a vertical curve to the corresponding point on the lower horizontal track.

Channel: The data path between sender and receiver.

Chute: Allows small to big sized loading and unloading of materials to be transferred via funneling.

Circulation Loop: Material or product that remains on a conveyor at a constant loop.

Client: A customer in the supply chain industry that needs a solution to a problem through MHE design, service, etc.

Closed Circuit Conveyor: An arrangement of conveyors capable of moving material through all portions of a circuit and returning the unused portion to the starting point.

Coaxial Cable: Electrical cable with a solid wire conductor at the center surrounded by insulating materials and has an outer metal screen conductor with an axis of curvature.

Coefficient of Friction: A ratio between the force of contact existing between two surfaces and the resistant force tending to oppose the motion of one with respect to the other. Used to determine the power needed to drive a machine; to determine the slope of angles used in bins, chutes, and bunkers; or to determine the maximum angle of inclination for a conveyor.

Common Carrier: A carrier engaged in the business of transporting goods or passengers for compensation. Examples of common carriers: FedEx, UPS, Uber, Lyft, etc.

Communication Server: A dedicated system that manages and operates as a carrier for communication activities for other computers.

Computer Controlled: A system that is fully controlled by a computer.

Contact Readers: A scanner that must physically touch the bar code to read it.

Control Panel: An interface combination of electrical power to control and monitor mechanical equipment. The metal cabinet contains various electrical components and cables.

Control System: A hardware and/or software systems primary function to collect and analyze feedback for a given set of functions for the purpose of controlling them. Implemented by monitoring and/or systematically modifying policies used in those functions, or by preparing control reports that initiate useful action with respect to significant deviations and exceptions.

Conveyor: A common equipment used in material handling to transport items of various sizes throughout locations of a warehouse facility.

Conveyor Width: (1) Overall width entails the dimension from the outside of the frames. (2) Belt width is the measure inside the frames.

Cost of Capital: The rate of return or profit a company earns before generating value.

Counterbalanced Truck: A forklift truck using rear-end weights to increase stability and driver safety. Ideal for handling heavier loads. These trucks must turn at right angles in order to place the material in storage, requiring wide aisles up 10 to 14 feet and substantial floor capacity.

Critical Path: Project management technique that defines a sequence of critical tasks and steps in order to complete a project.

Cube: Measure of capacity in a building by Length X Width X Height.

Cube Utilization: Percentage of storage utilization in a warehouse.

Customer Success: SRSI supports your success long after you place an order with us. Whether it be post-project maintenance or new on-site service repair, we are equipped to solve your common warehouse problems.


DOF (Depth of Field): The distance between the maximum and minimum plane in which a bar code reader is capable of reading symbols of a specified x dimension.

Data Warehouse: A blend of technologies including relational and multidimensional analysis, client/server architecture, graphical user interfaces, powerful meta data modeling, etc. These technologies combine to enable the integration of multiple operational databases into one database designed specifically for analytical processing.

Dead Reckoning: The AGV leaves the guidewire and then returns to it, under the control of a computer.

Decoder: As part of a bar code reading system, the electronic package that receives the signals form the scanner, performs the algorithm to interpret the signals into meaningful data, and provides the interface to other devices.

Dedicated Circuit: A circuit that supplies power to a specific computer, and no other devices. This setup requires running a pair of wires and a ground from the main distribution panel at the electrical service entrance to the computer.

Depreciation: (1) Decline in value of a capitalized asset (2) A form of capital recovery applicable to property with two or more-year life span, in which an appropriate portion of the asset value is periodically charged to current operations.

Digital: The representation of data in on/off signals of 1s and 0s. Digital transmission lines offer faster speeds, more accuracy, and better flexibility than analog lines.

Direct Labor: (1) Work identifiable with a specific product. (2) Work performed on a product or service that advances the product or service towards completion of objective.

Direct Thermal Printing: A non-impact printing technique that consists of square dots that are selectively heated and cooled to form an image on heat-sensitive paper. As the material passes under print head, tiny elements on the head selectively generate heat to darken areas to create images.

Discounted Cash Flow: (1) The present worth of sequence in time of sums of money when the sequence is considered as a flow of cash into and/or of an economic unit. (2) An investment analysis which compares the present worth of projected receipts and disbursements occurring at designated future ties in order to estimate the rate of return from the investment or project.

Distributed Processing: A system in which each computer in the network performs its own processing and manages its data while the network facilitates communications between the nodes.

Distribution: The efficient movement of products and items on a production line that gets sent to the consumer. Movement can involve material handling, freight transportation, packaging, inventory control, order processing, customer services, etc.

Distribution Center: Warehouse where products are assembled for shipment and distributed to specific customer locations.

Dock Leveler: An adjustable rectangular platform built into the dock edge. used to compensate for the difference between varying truck bed heights and delivery platforms of a facility.

Dock to Stock Time: The time measured for an inbound item from trailer docking to product put away.

Download: The transfer of a file or information from one network node to another.

Downtime: A period of time during which an operation is halted due to the lack of materials, a machinery breakdown, lack of labor, etc.

Drive-In Rack: A rack consisting of upright frames, rails, and ties permitting a vehicle to enter the structure from one side only to pick up or deposit pallets on continuous rails. The structure dictates FILO.

Drive-Through Racks: Are similar to drive-in racks in that they allow the fork truck and pallet to enter the rack structure and place the pallet on rails. FIFO movement is possible with drive through racks whereas FILO movement must usually be acceptable with drive through racks.


EAN: European Article Numbering system, the international standard bar code for retail product type.

Economic Life: The period of time an asset is useful to its owner.

Economic Return: The profit derived from an operation.

Efficiency, Labor: The percentage of the ratio of standard labor performance time to actual labor performance time.

Eighty/Twenty (80/20) Rule: About 20% of products will take up 80% of warehouse space. The 80% of the warehouse not taken up by product, is used for optimized warehouse layout.

End-of-Aisle Picking Systems: AS/RS provides dense storage and maximizes the use of available storage height. These systems are useful when high transaction rates and large inventory levels result in high travel times for human order picking methods. By delivering the part to the order picker, operator travel time is eliminated. These systems are also effective in situations requiring additional packaging, checking, or processing which would be impractical to provide on a mobile order picking unit.

End Node: A node that can only send and receive information for its own use. It cannot route and forward information to another node.

End-User: The user of the product.

Ergonomics: (1) Design of working conditions to better accommodate the human body capabilities and limitations. (2) the study of human efficiency in a working environment.

Error Correcting RAM: Error correcting RAM (Random Access Memory) can automatically detect and correct memory errors.

Ethernet: The most popular LAN technology in use today. It is a baseband network that runs over thin coax, thick coax, twisted pair or fiber optic cable. Commonly used in local, metropolitan and wide area networks.

Expert System: A computer program, based on artificial intelligence technologies, that perform decision functions which are similar to those of human expert and on demand. Typical applications in the field of robotics are high-level robot programming, planning and control of assembly, and processing and recovery of errors.


FDDI (Fiber optic Data Distribution Interface): A cable interface capable standard for data transmission.

FIFO: First in, first out. Method used in warehousing for inventory.

FMS (Flexible Manufacturing System): An arrangement of machine tools that is capable of standing alone and adaptable to changes. Involves interconnected computer workstations that are configured to handle changing levels of production.

FSD (Functional Specifications Document): A document developed by ASAP Automation after Receipt of Order. The FSD describes in detail a product’s intended capability and function for software developers.

FTP (File Transfer Protocol): A low-overhead means of transferring files from one system to another on a computer network.

Facilitator: Person responsible for planning and structuring the meeting, setting agenda, inviting participants, and running the meeting.

Family Grouping: Method of storing identical or similar products in a common area.

Fault Tolerant: Ability of computer system to continue to operate without disruption.

Fiber-Optic Cable: Used for long-distance and high-performance data networking, is it composed of central glass or plastic optical fiber cable surrounded by cladding and an outer protective sheath.

Filtering: Software that controls and filters data to enter into the computer system.

Firmware: Low-level control from a computer software.

Fixed Beam Scanner: A bar code scanner that uses a stationary laser beam. It relies on the relative motion of the item to be read as it passes before the reader.

Floor Space Utilization: The percentage of the ratio of occupied floor space to total floor space available.

Flow Analysis: The examination of the progressive travel, either of humans or material, from place to place and/or from operation to operation. The examination consists of reasoning the existence of every aspect of the operation, or the travel. Also seeks justifications for determining how the progressive travel, or the operation, may be changed or modified to achieve the utmost economies in both time and material, all other things being equal.

Flow Diagram: A representation of operations and the flow of materials between activities through an imaged layout of a process. Usually accompanied by a flow process chart.

Flow Process Chart: A graphic, symbolic representation of the work performed, or planned to perform, on a product as it passes through stages.

Flow Rack: (1) Rack that helps with the flow of materials. (2) Gravity storage non-powered conveyor lane pitched at a slight incline so that two or more loads can be stored in one lane with gravity providing the means of movement within that lane. Flow racks are designed for loads to “flow” to the unloading position. As one pallet or load is removed from the front of the rack, another load moves forward to fill the empty space (FILO). Movement is at a controlled by live rail, gravity wheel, or roller conveyors.

Forklift: Material handling vehicle designed to move loads (usually pallets or boxes) by means of steel fingers.

Frequency Distribution: A specification of the way in which frequencies are shown during each occurrence.

Full-Duplex: Information flowing in both directions via communication link.


Gate: A section of conveyor equipped with a bridge hinge mechanism to provide an opening for a walkway, etc.

Gateway: A device for interconnecting two or more networks.

Gateway Server: A communication server that provides access between networks using different access software.

General Contractor: A vendor who agrees to provide or sub-contract for all equipment/hardware and software needed for a project installation.

Glass Box Testing: Testing technique that examines program structure and collects data from program code.

Goods to Person (GTP): Order picking method that reduces movement within a facility by using automated storage and retrieval systems (ASRS) with stationary workers.

Gravity Conveyor: A non-powered roller or wheel conveyor used to move products/items via gravity.

Guard Rail: Rails paralleling the path of a conveyor and protecting the system from damage.


Half-Duplex: The ability to alternate between transmitting and receiving data over a communications link.

Handheld Scanner: A scanner held and operated by a human, enabling the scanner to be brought to the symbol. Most popular handheld scanners are the laser scanners and the wand.

Hand Pallet Truck: A truck designed to lift loads off the floor high enough to move them from one location to another. Positioning of the truck is by hand. The lifting surface can be a platform or forks. The platform unit is used for handling skids and the fork type unit for handling pallets.

Header: The initial part of a data packet or frame containing identifying information such as the source of the data, its destinations, and length.

Honeycombing: The practice of removing merchandise in pallet-load quantities where the space is not used in an orderly fashion. This results in inefficiencies due to the received merchandise not being efficiently stored in the space which is created by the honeycombing.

Horizontal bar Code: A bar code or symbol that its overall length dimension is parallel to the horizon.

Hot Swapping: Changing or addition of components drive while still on-line.

Hub: A central wiring device that repeats data signals sent over the network. They can also provide bridging, routing, and internetworking functions.


IEEE 802.3: The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers) set of standards that defines the Ethernet-based networks.

I/O: Input and Output.

IPX (Internetworking Packet Exchange): A networking protocol similar to IP.

ISA (Industry Standard Architecture): The 16-bit size for standard personal computer expansion slots.

ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network): A communications network that sounds, images, and data can be transmitted.

Idle Time: Time during which a worker or equipment is not working.

Indexing: Controlled spacing or feeding.

Indirect Labor: Labor that is not value added to a product but must be performed to support its manufacture.

Infant Mortality Period: Early failure period that begins when a product is used for the first time.

Inspection: The process to ensure product quality and accuracy.

Interleaved Bar Code: A bar code in that characters are paired together using bars to represent the first, and spaces to represent the second.

Internet: A global network of computers and its networks which people share files, send electronic messages, and access to infinite information.

Inventory Control: A system that includes stock amount, locations, item’s physical description, etc.

Inventory Turnover Ratio: Measures the ROI from inventory and provides an indication of the movement of materials. Ration of annual sales to average inventory investment on hand.

Item: A unique product defined from all other products or packages by nature of its name, package, label or material substance.


LAN (Local Area Network): A group of computer equipment that are connected and share one location (ex: office, home).

LDP (Light Directed Picking): A system where a computer gives directions to an operator through LED or laser to indicate location of pick to accomplish each task.

LED (Light Emitting Diode): A semiconductor device that emits light when a current flows through it.

LIFO: Organization and storage tool for pallets/items that are last in, first out.

LTL (Less Than Truckload): A load that is relatively small for shipment.

Laser Scanner: A non-contact bar code reading device that uses laser infrared technology.

Layout: (1) A graphical representation of a floor plan showing space for storage operations and supporting functions. Scaled to a facility in 2-D and 3-D.

Layout Drawing: Image display of equipment, machinery or components.

Level of Automation: The degree to which a process has been made automatic.

Line Item: A unique item/product of inventory.

Line Speed: The standard speed for unit handling conveyors is 65 Feet Per Minute.

Local Network Interconnect: A Port Multiplier, or concentrator supporting multiple active devices or communications controller It can be used as a standalone or attached to standard Ethernet cable.

Location Analysis: The placement of workstations, buffers, material handling equipment, that are planned out.


MAU (Multiple Access Unit): A device used to convert signals from one Ethernet medium to another.

Machine Language: The lowest level language that can be understood by a computer.

Man-Up Turret Truck: Similar to a forklift but has an operator platform which rises up with the forks enabling order picking.

Management Control: Benefits both tangible and intangible received from a system/person which provides better operational control.

Manufacturing Cell: A set of machines grouped together by the products or outcomes they produce.

Material Control: Benefits in terms of material flow and information flow received from a warehouse management system integrated to a material handling system.

*Material Handling: The movement, storage, control, and protection of materials and products throughout the process of their manufacturing, distributing, consumption and disposal.

Methods Analysis: An examination and analysis of an operation or a work-cycle. Broken down into parts for the purpose of improvement, elimination of unnecessary steps, and/or establishing a method of performance.

Microkernel: Software that provides basic mechanism services needed to implement to an operating system. A microkernel operating system is able to diversify to be just about any other operating system. Can do this by changing module layers.

Minimum Pressure Accumulating Conveyor: Conveyor designed to mitigate pressure between packages.

Mirroring: A mirrored disk subsystem that connects two disk drives to one controller. All written data is duplicated on both drives.

Misread: A condition that occurs when the data output of a reader does not read the data code properly in the bar code symbol.

Modem: A hardware device that converts the digital language to a format suitable (signals) into your local devices.

Moving Beam Scanner: A non-contact bar code reader that dynamically searches for code marks via laser beam through a field of view. This type of scanner is used when bar codes are moving at high speed.

Multiplexer: Piece of data communication equipment that allows several different connected devices to transmit and receive data from a single master communication port.

Multiplexing: Transmitting multiple signals simultaneously on a singular channel.


NFS (Network File System): A protocol that allows computers to share files transparently.

NIC (Network Interface Card): An adapter card that is inserted into a computer, that allows devices to connect and communicate over the network.

NOS (Network Operating System): Software for a network that runs in a file server and controls access to files and other resources from multiple users.

Narrow Aisle Truck: A self-loading truck intended for right angle stacking in aisles narrower than counter-balanced trucks of the same capacity.

Network: An interconnected system of computers that communicates, shares files, data and resources with each other.

Network Address: A logical or physical address that identifies a unique network node location.

Network Management: Total of administrative services for managing a network, including configuring and tuning, maintaining operations, monitoring performance, and diagnosing problems.

Node: An intelligent device connected to the network. Such as: terminal servers, host computers, printers, etc.

Non-Contact Readers: A scanner that does not have to physically touch the bar code to read.


OCR (optical character recognition): A technology that converts images of text into machine-encoded text.

ODB (Open Database Connectivity): Standard application interface that allows databases created by management programs to be accessed using a common interface independent of the database file format.

OLE (Object Linking and Embedding): Allows embedding and linking to documents. Also, able to edit documents.

OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Act): Created in 1970, OSHA ensures safe and healthy working conditions and environments for working by setting and enforcing standards.

Object-Oriented Software: Software built of reusable, extensive and configurable modules. Objects are software modules with defined inputs and outputs that are easily modifiable.

Obsolescence: The process of being out-of-date and loss of value.

Operations Analysis: A study of an operation or series that involves people, equipment, and processes for the purpose of investigating effectiveness. Based on results, improvements are developed. This can raise productivity, reduce costs, improve quality, reduce accident hazards, or attain other desired objectives for the operation.

Operator Transaction Time: Time an operator spends processing the transaction.

Order Batch: A combination of orders released for order picking.

Order Picker Truck: A high-lift truck controlled by an operator stationed on a platform. Operator is able to pick and move items intended for orders.

Order Picking: Selection and picking of items to complete a customer order.

Order Picking and Stacking Truck: Self-loading industrial truck, intended for right-angle stacking and order picking. Has an operator control platform that moves vertically.

Orders: Material requests going to a specific customer or destination.


PBX (Private Branch Exchange): Telephone system that is sued in a business setting to manage inbound and outbound calls.

PCR (Problem Correction Request): A request for technical support by the end-user that is forwarded to the ASAP support desk.

PCS (Print Contrast Signal): A measurement of contrast reflections between bars and spaces of a barcode.

PLC (Programmable Logic Controller): A device that monitors inputs and outputs while controlling the manufacturing process.

Packing: The placing of protective material in a package to provide a barrier for the object.

Pallet Storage Rack: Structure composed of two or more upright frames, beams, and connectors. The purpose to support pallet materials in storage.

Performance Specifications: The various important parameters or capabilities in a design and operation. Performance is defined in terms of the quality of behavior, how result is achieved, and quantitative achievement, such as speed, power, or accuracy.

Pick Aisle: A pick aisle in which an order selector can pick orders.

Pick Cart: A pick cart is an order picking device designed to hold small packages and tote boxes in a fulfillment center.

Pick Line: An arrangement of SKU in an ordering system to facilitate order selection.

Pick Slot: A location in the warehouse where items are ready for order selection.

Pick Time: The amount of time required by an order picker to execute a picking order.

Picking Face: A location in a warehouse set-up for picking quantities less than one pallet.

Picking Rate: Found by dividing the total number of picks by the total amount of time.

Pickup and Delivery (P&D) Station: A location at which a load entering or leaving storage is supported for handling by ASRS.

Point-of-Sale (POS) Data Entry System: A system that captures data processed for retail purposes such as transactions.

Pool Shipment: Multiple shipments that are combined into one large-singular shipment.

Port: (1) Opening on device that allows systems to connect. (2) Location on the coast or harbor that ships load and unload.

Power Surge: A sudden increase of voltage that can cause damage to electronics and appliances.

Preemptive Multitasking: Allows computer programs to share operating systems and hardware resources via scheduling.

Primary Location: The allotted slot from which items are selected to fill orders.

Product Inspection: A review of the product to check quality during production process.

Productivity: Measure of efficiency of a warehouse. Assessed by the amount and rate of work attained by the workforce.

Product Update: A revision to software or item to increase overall effectiveness and quality.

Product Walkthrough: Interactive experience for users to view process of overall product.

Project Management: The planning and execution of a project.

Protocol: Procedure of rules for a system or process.

Proximity Sensor: A device which senses that an object in close distance without any physical contact.

Pull Cord Switch: An emergency cord to stop a conveyor.


Queue: A line formed by loads or items while waiting for processing.

Quick Response: The business strategy of shortening cycle time between bar code scanning at the checkout counter by electronically transmitting sales data back from the retailer to the supplier.

Quiet Zone: A clear space, containing no dark marks, that precedes the start character of a bar code symbol and follows that stop characters. Sometimes called the clear area.


RAFT (Right Angle Fast Transfer): RAFT AS/RS shuttles pallets via putwall or conveyor intake and swiftly navigates inventory storage and order fulfillment through the integration of cutting-edge automation and SRSI’s proprietary SwiftCurrent WES. A fully automated, high-density pallet storage to meet today’s demanding warehousing and distribution needs.

RAM: (Random Access Memory) Information can be entered and retrieved from such a memory.

RAID Level 1: (Redundant Array of Inexpensive Drives) Data is mirrored, that is, duplicated onto a second set of hard disks.

RAID Level 5: In a Raid Level 1 configuration, data is stripped by sectors across all drives in the array, and parity information is interleaved with the data.

RAPIDS (Request Action Project Information and Documentation System): RAPIDS is an SRSI program that delivers service after a project. Customers receive a login to a customized dashboard. The dashboard consists of all operations touchpoints, pending requests, PM schedules, and spare parts support.

ROM: (Read Only Memory). A memory device that retains its information even when power to it is removed. A ROM version of a network device does not need to download, since the ROM contains the entire executable code and thus never needs to reload it. Frequently the ROM is provided as “flash ROM”, which can be reprogrammed by downloading if the user chooses.

Random Sample: A sample selected in such a way that each element of the population being samples has an equal chance of being selected.

Real Time: Computer communicates continuously with a device while the operation is performed.

Real Time Processing: The immediate and continuous processing of information gathered from a data collection method.

Receiving: (1) The function of accepting, recording, and reporting merchandise into a facility. (2) The receipt of inbound supplies; includes planning, handling , and document processing incident thereto.

Receiving Area: Area used for checking, inspecting, and preparing incoming material (both new procurement and returns), prior to its delivery to storage areas.

Receiving Dock: An area reserved for the unloading of delivery vehicles

Redundancy: The ability to continue operations when a primary system fails by relying on a backup system.

Redundant Components: Indicates which server subsystems have backup components. This means that if one component fails, another one can continue to support the system without interruption of service.

Reengineering: The fundamental rethinking and radical design of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical, contemporary measures of performance, such as cost, quality, service and speed. Instituting an overall change in the way companies are structured and run.

Reflectance: The ratio of the amount of light of a specified wavelength or series of wavelengths reflected from a test surface to the amount of light reflected from a barium oxide or magnesium oxide standard under similar illumination conditions.

Registered Support Contact: The authorized individuals specified on the ASAP Customer Support Program Registration Form or Renewal Form with whom ASAP communicates when providing support services. The support contact must be the End-User employee. The support contacts are knowledgeable about how the supported software is being used and its operating environment and have received formal training by ASAP Automation.

Remote Support: The use of telecommunications via modem to provide remote diagnostic and product update capability.

Router: A network device that links two or more usually geographically separated LANs and forwards to each LAN only those messages intended for that network. This balances traffic and improves performance. More sophisticated routers can link LANs based on different protocols.

Repeater: A network device that repeats signals from one cable on to one or more other cables, while restoring signal timing and waveforms.

Replenishment: The function of transferring stock from a reserve storage area, or directly from shipping, to a primary picking location which has become empty.

Returns: Merchandise returned for credit by customer.

Reusable Container: A container intended for multiple cycles of use.

Ring: A network topology in which the nodes are connected in a closed loop. Data is transmitted from node to node around the loop always in the same direction.


SCR: (Specification Change Request) Changes to an originally accepted Functional Design Document are instituted through an SCR form which must be approved by the customer. (Specification Change Request) Changes to an originally accepted Functional Design Document are instituted through an SCR form which must be approved by the customer. (Specification Change Request) Changes to an originally accepted Functional Design Document are instituted through an SCR form which must be approved by the customer.

SKU: (Stock Keeping Unit). Represents one unique inventory item. Example: one style of shirt, in six colors and five collar sizes, would be 30 different SKU.

SMP: (Symmetric Multiprocessing) Assumes that all processors are equally capable of servicing the operating system. Individual threads of a particular process can run on the first available processor. The processing load is balanced among processors, so that some CPUs are not overutilized while others sit idle.

SNMP: (Simple Network Management Protocol). Allows a TCP/IP host running an SNMP application to query other nodes for network-related statistics and error conditions. The other hosts, which provide SNMP agents, respond to these queries and allow a single host to gather network statistics from many other network nodes.

SOW: (Statement of Work) The work to be provided by ASAP Automation as described in its proposal and Functional Specifications Document.

SQL: (Structured Query Language) A query language developed by IBM that relies on simple English-language statements to perform database queries. SQL allows databases from different manufacturers and on different types of computers to be queried using a standard syntax.

Safety Stock: Quantity of an inventory item carried in stores or stock as a hedge against stockout resulting from above average or unexpected demand during procurement lead time – (synonyms – minimum or protective inventory, buffer inventory, cushion, or reserve.

Seasonal: Daily, weekly, or monthly sales data showing a more or less repetitive pattern.

Seasonality: Storage and shipment of material from a warehouse caused by seasonal surges in customer demands.

Secondary Location: Back-up or reserve storage, or secondary location for order selection.

Security/Fault Tolerance: A server equipped with redundant components and basic security features thus providing strong insurance against casual tempering, corrupted data, and hardware failure.

Selective Rack(s): Commonly referred to as pallet racks running parallel to the aisle each consisting of a pair of horizontal beams on which pallets may be placed one deep. These beams are connected to the front and rear columns of a vertical truss. Every pallet face is exposed to the aisle providing 100% selectivity.

Selectivity: Ease of accessibility of merchandise. The number of “facings” or immediately accessible storage slots. Selectivity is sometimes expressed as the percentage of the total storage slots which are immediately accessible.

Serpentine Pick: A travel path used by an order selector that takes him past every picking slot in the warehouse, to fill one order.

Server: A computer and/or program that accepts, controls and executes requests for processing or data access from other computers and/or client programs in a network. It performs such services as resource allocation and sharing, file printing, and file downloading.

Session: A connection to a network service.

Shelf: A horizontal supporting surface above floor level within a rack or storage section.

Shelving: Shelving is used for economical storage of small hand stackable items which are not suited to mechanized handling and storage due to their handling characteristics, activity, or quantity.

Shipping: (1) Actions necessary to deliver material to a carrier for movement to a consignee. (2) The function of recording, reporting, and sending merchandise to a consumer.

Shipping Area: An area used to assemble and prepare material for loading in a truck, railcar, etc..

Shipping Dock: An area reserved for the loading of delivery vehicles.

Shrinkage: An inventory adjustment because of pilferage over or under shipment, or receiving errors.

Simulation: The process of “test-driving” a system and warehouse prior to installation. This is normally done on a computer, using a mathematical model of an existing or planned operation.

Single Deep Storage: Loads stored one deep on each side of the aisle.

Slot: A location in the warehouse with a specific address.

Slotting: A numbering technique used to provide an “address” or location for all products in the warehouse.

Software Problem: Defective software distribution media, and/or software function which is not in conformance with the user manual or other documentation provided with the supported software.

Software Escrow: An arrangement in which ASAP places a copy of the source code and other materials needed for the ongoing maintenance of the product with a third party “technology asset manager”.

Sorting Conveyor: A conveyor which receives mixed unit loads and discharges them to segregated spaces or conveyors in response to an automatic dispatch control.

Source Code: Programs in an uncompiled or unassembled form.

Staging Areas: Areas between different warehouse operations where goods are temporarily stored awaiting processing by the next operation.

Start/Stop Character or Pattern: A special bar code character that provides the scanner with start and stop reading instructions as well as scanning direction indicator. The start character is normally at the left-hand end of a horizontally oriented symbol. The stop character is normally at the right-hand end of a horizontally oriented symbol.

Stocking: Placing merchandise into storage and/or picking slots (synonyms – putaway, replenishment).

Straddle Truck: Fork lift truck with front-mounted outriggers which straddles the load being handled. Also a large material handling vehicle which straddles the load and lifts it from above.

SwiftCurrent WCS: SwiftCurrent is built on a powerful 5G cloud-based platform yet it is scalable, and flexible enough for any high-throughput operation. Using smart-application technology, and real-time analytics, SwiftCurrent assesses orders, inventory, labor and material handling systems to effectively execute order fulfillment.

Switch: Multiport Ethernet device designed to increase network performance by allowing only essential traffic on the attached individual Ethernet segments. Packets are filtered or forwarded based upon their source and destination addresses.

Symbol: A combination of bar code characters including start/stop characters, quiet zones, data characters, and check characters required by a particular symbology, that forms a complete, scannable entity.

Symbol Length: The distance between the outside edges of the quiet zone on the two ends of a bar code symbol.

System Acceptance: The earlier of: (i) the date on which the System Demonstration has been satisfactorily completed; or (ii) 30 days from the date on which the End-User has placed the System in Beneficial Use, including but not limited to using the System for production purposes.

System Configuration: An iterative design process consisting of the evaluation of the factors affecting products and production tasks, selection of a design concept based on these factors, and evaluation of the performance of the selected concept. Following the results of the evaluation, a system can be refined and reevaluated, or discarded.

System Demonstration: The process of demonstrating to the End-User that the System meets the requirements of the Functional Specifications Document through the execution of the Acceptance Test Elements leading to System Acceptance. The date of completion of System Demonstration, if it occurs prior to the use of the System by the End-User, constitutes the date at which the System is tendered for Beneficial Use. Under mutually agreed conditions by ASAP Automation and the End-User, the End-User may also place the System in use and reach Beneficial Use prior to System Demonstration.

Systems Integrator: A vendor or consultant hired to provide or sub-contract for all equipment/hardware and software needed for an installation. The authorized representatives of ASAP Automation responsible for integrating the ASAP software into a system solution.

System Readiness: The date upon which, for the first time, the System meets the requirements of the SOW. At completion of System Readiness, ASAP Automation shall submit to the End-User a written Notification of System Readiness. Such notification initiates immediate availability for Beneficial Use and System Demonstration within one (1) week.

10BASE2: Ethernet running on thin coax network cable.

10BASE-T: Ethernet running on unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cable. Note that 10BASE-T is a point-to-point network media, with one end of the cable typically going to a repeater/hub and the other to the network device.


TCP/IP: (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) is an established protocol that provides platform-independent support for network communications, such as routing traffic across networks. This provides a relatively simple, standardized means of connecting large, heterogeneous networks. (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) is an established protocol that provides platform-independent support for network communications, such as routing traffic across networks. This provides a relatively simple, standardized means of connecting large, heterogeneous networks. (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) is an established protocol that provides platform-independent support for network communications, such as routing traffic across networks. This provides a relatively simple, standardized means of connecting large, heterogeneous networks.

TSR: (Terminate-and-stay-resident) The common name for DOS programs that terminate but remain resident in memory so they can operate in the background while other programs execute in the foreground.

Technical Support: The time spent by ASAP customer support personnel on the telephone with the support contact, and time spent by ASAP customer support personnel in researching, simulating, testing, documenting, etc. the problem or question.

Thermal Transfer Printing: This technology involves printing on facestock which is not heat sensitive; instead, a dry wax or resin-based ribbon is used. The ribbon travels through the print path on top of the label. As it passes under the printhead, the heat melts the ink from the ribbon and transfers it to the label material.

Thickwire: Half inch diameter coax cable.

Thinwire: Thin coaxial cable similar to that used for television/video hookups.

Throughput: (1) The amount of merchandise shipped through a system or warehouse in a given time. This is referred to in cases, lines, or tons of product. (2) The rate of movement of material through a system.

Time Study: A work measurement technique consisting of careful time measurement of the task with a time measuring instrument, adjusted for any observed variance from normal effort or pace to allow adequate time for such items as foreign elements, unavoidable or machine delays, rest to overcome fatigue, and personal needs. Learning or progress effects may also be considered. If the task is of sufficient length, it is normally broken down into short, relatively homogeneous work elements, each of which is treated separately as well as in combination with the rest.

Token: The character sequence or frame, passed in sequence from node to node, to indicate that the node controlling ir has the right to transmit for a given amount of time.

Token Ring: Developed by IBM, this 4 or 16 Mbps network uses a ring topology and a token-passing access method.

Topology: The arrangement of the nodes and connecting hardware that comprises the network. Types include the ring, bus, star and tree.

Tote Box: A small durable container usually used for order picking and/or shipping of small items.

Transceiver: The actual device that interfaces between the network and the local node. The term generally refers to to any connector such as a MAU, that actively converts signals between the network and the local node.

Transfer Mechanism: Any mechanism that transfers objects onto or off of a conveyor line or from one conveyor line to another.

Travel Expenses: Out-of-pocket expenses for work done at a customer location such as meals, lodging, and transportation.

Turret Truck: A class of material handling vehicles in which the forks are attached to a device permitting their rotation to service either side of the storage aisle. Turret trucks can swing their forks through 180 degrees and can load pallets from either side of the machine. These units vary in their aisle requirements and in their flexibility but generally operate in aisle widths of 50 to 84 inches and with clearances only slightly larger than the size of the pallet itself.

Twisted Pair Cable: Inexpensive, multiple conductor cable comprised of one or more pairs of 18 to 24 gauge copper strands. The strands are twisted to improve protection against electromagnetic and radio frequency interference. The cable, which may be either shielded or unshielded, is used in low-speed communications, as telephone cable. It is used only in baseband networks because of its narrow bandwidth.

Two Way Container: A container whose configuration permits retrieving or discharging from opposite direction along the same horizontal axis.


UPC (Universal Product Code): The standard bar code symbol for retail food packages in the United States.

UPS – Standby Type: (Uninterruptible Power Supply) During normal operation, the UPS routes raw utility AC power directly to the computer while trickle-charging the battery. When the incoming utility voltage drops below a certain value (typically 102VAC), a detection circuit actuates a transfer switch to connect to battery power via a DC-to-AC inverter. This switchover causes a momentary loss of power of typically 5-20msec.

UPS – Line-Interactive Type: With this UPS type, utility-generated power supplies the load under normal conditions. But the line-interactive system has boost/buck circuits that can add to (boost) or oppose (buck) the AC voltage from the power line. The boost/buck circuits offer voltage regulation, which can compensate for overvoltages or undervoltages in the AC input to the UPS.

UPS – On-Line Type: With an on-line UPS, AC power from the electric utility passes through an AC-to-DC converter to become direct current, which charges a storage battery. In addition to supplying DC to the battery, it also supplies the DC-to-AC inverter into which the computer load is plugged. Because the load is always powered by the DC-to-AC inverter, an on-line UPS has no switching time.

Unitization: Securing material to a pallet by strapping, wrapping, or other means to provide a secure load for handling by a fork truck.

Unix: A multitasking, multi-user computer operating system developed by AT&T.

UTP: Unshielded twisted pair, one or more cable pairs surrounded by insulation. UTP is commonly used a telephone wire.


Vertical Bar Code: A group of barcodes that are aligned parallel to each other that contains information about the product.

Voice Recognition: A process that captures and converts speech to identify the product that is being spoken about.


WAN (Wide Area Network): A telecommunications networks that uses multiple local area networks used for fast and secure connection.

Wand: A scanning device used for a contact bar code reader. Also referred to as a light pen. Operator guides the pen to scan for data.

Warehouse: A building where manufactured goods or products are stored before shipment and distribution.

Wedge Reader: A device that between keyboard and computer that helps translate data by another device onto the keyboard.

Work Measurement: A setting of a time standard for a given task to establish time of study, standard data, or work sampling.

Work Sampling: An application of random sampling techniques to the study of work activities so that the proportions of time devoted to different elements of work can be estimated with a given degree of statistical validity.

Workstation: An area in which someone is assigned to stand or remain to perform work tasks. The area is necessary for the operation and material being processed or worked on.


X Dimension: the nominal width dimension of the narrow bars and spaces in a bar code symbol. the nominal width dimension of the narrow bars and spaces in a bar code symbol. the nominal width dimension of the narrow bars and spaces in a bar code symbol.


Zero Pressure Conveyor: A type of conveyor designed for products not to touch. Used to reduce impact, destruction of packages, and hold in place when needed.

Zone: A dedicated work area.

Zone Picking: A method of order picking in a warehouse where items are divided up in areas. Employees are designated to pick from their assigned zone.

Industrial Shelving

  • Shelving can be open or closed in back
  • Shelving can be open or closed on the sides
  • Modular design – mix and match different unit types
  • Full-surface or optional wire shelving
  • Choose from a huge selection of dividers, bins